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Metal mobilization in general, as well as the number of metals used in products to increase performance and provide sometimes unique functionalities, has increased steadily in the past decades. Materials, such as indium, gallium, platinum group metals PGMand rare earths REare used ever more frequently in high-tech applications and their criticality as a function of economic importance and supply risks has been highlighted in various studies.
Nevertheless, recycling rates are often below one percent. Two established applications of PGM and RE—industrial catalysts and thermal barrier coatings—and CIGS photovoltaic cells as a relatively new product have been analyzed.
In addition to a quantification of future EOL flows, the analysis showed that a relatively well working recycling system exists for PGM-bearing catalysts, while a complete loss of critical metals occurs for the other applications.
The reasons include a lack of economic incentives, technologically caused material dissipation and other technological challenges. Introduction The conservation and considerate use of non-renewable resources is an important element of sustainability goals and strategies in Germany [ 1 ] and the EU [ 2 ].
These strategies aim at improving material efficiency, at substituting scarce resources with more abundant or renewable resources, and at significantly improving material recycling, which is an essential aspect of a sustainable management of materials e.
The issue of material recycling is of particular importance, especially given the fact that global metals mobilization is significantly increasing [ 4 ] and an increasing number of elements from the periodic table are being used in products [ 5 ].
In various products, especially the so-called critical metals, provide a variety of new functionalities, increase efficiency of established applications, or enable miniaturization of products.
The issue of material criticality as the combination of a materials economic importance and its supply risks has already been discussed frequently see e. An outline of the criticality assessment used in this study is given in the supplementary information. Metals, such as indium, gallium, germanium, platinum group metals PGMand rare earths REare commonly among the materials labeled as critical.
Against this background, this article discusses several aspects of the situation described. First, three exemplary applications of critical metals are analyzed regarding the amounts of critical metals embodied in end-of-life products inwith a regional focus on Germany.
Knowledge about these stocks and flows is crucial for a development towards sustainable materials management. Then, for the three applications, the end-of-life chains in Germany are explored, identifying magnitude and location of material losses.
In addition to two established applications of PGM and RE—industrial catalysts and thermal barrier coatings, that have so far received only little attention in material flow analysis MFA and related studies, copper-indium-gallium- di selenide CIGS photovoltaic cells have been analyzed as a relatively new product, i.
Description of Methods 2. Modeling of End-of-Life Flows To quantify the amounts of critical metals from the assessed end-of-life products, a product-centric approach has been chosen.
The study focuses on Germany and the time horizon is The applied approach as shown in Figure 1 focuses on the use phase and is determined by mainly three parameters: Additionally, exports from the use phase E have been considered but did not show any relevance for the three assessed products.
Based on these parameters the amount of secondary materials embodied in EOL products A has been determined.
Details on the parameters for each product are given in the respective sections. Modeling approach and system boundaries. As the analysis as well as the analyzed system is dynamic, the time spent in the use phase is a particularly important parameter.
As highlighted by Murakami [ 14 ], various differing definitions of lifespan are used in science and literature. In this study, lifespan is understood as the time span from entering the use phase to leaving the use phase. Instead of using average values, a life span probability distribution is used in the model.
From the many plausible distributions functions, the Weibull distribution has been chosen as most suitable.
The suitability of the Weibull distribution function for modeling product lifespans has been described in multiple studies e.
Examples for using the Weibull distribution to model end-of-life material flows are still very limited but can for example be found in [ 19 ] for wind energy converters or in [ 2021 ], and [ 22 ], for photovoltaic cells. Further details on the application of the Weibull function and related functions are given elsewhere e.
For a given point in time T e. Here, we assume that the lifespan distribution does not change with time.Benchmarking Airport Productivity and the Role of Capacity Utilization – A Study of Selected European AirportsBranko Bubalo Thesis submit.
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This entry was posted in Thesis acknowledgement sample and . Master thesis, Hochschule Pforzheim (mit Sperrvermerk) Kneller, Nadja (): Design of alternative WEEE collection systems for Hewlett-Packard.
Diplomarbeit, Hochschule Pforzheim (mit Sperrvermerk).