Latest General Knowledge Current affairs for the month of May Ananda Kumar and Dr.
HistoriographyPhilosophy of historyPeople's historyHistorical determinismand Historicism The discovery of the materialist conception of history, or rather, the consistent continuation and extension of materialism into the domain of social phenomenon, removed two chief defects of earlier historical theories.
In the first place, they at best examined only the ideological motives of the historical activity of human beings, without grasping the objective laws governing the development of the system of social relations All constituent features of a society social classes, political pyramid, ideologies are assumed to stem from economic activity, an idea often portrayed with the metaphor of the base and superstructure.
The base and superstructure metaphor describes the totality of social relations by which humans produce and re-produce their social existence.
The base includes the material forces of production, that is the labour and material means of production and relations of production, i.
From this base rises a superstructure of legal and political "forms of social consciousness" of political and legal institutions that derive from the economic base that conditions the superstructure and a society's dominant ideology.
Conflicts between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions and thus the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure.
Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes".
Accordingly, Marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production: Criticism of capitalism Further information: Opposition to capitalism and Criticism of capitalism According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin"the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine".
Exploitation has been a socioeconomic feature of every class society and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes.
In capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce it. Under that condition, surplus value the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer is synonymous with the term "surplus labour", thus capitalist exploitation is realised as deriving surplus value from the worker.
In pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. In the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved and because workers do not own the means of production, they must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life.
The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that they choose which capitalist to work for. However, the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory. Alienation is the estrangement of people from their humanity German: Gattungswesen, "species-essence", "species-being"which is a systematic result of capitalism.
Under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to the employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others and so generate alienated labourers. Social classes See also: Social classClass conflictClassless societyand Three-component theory of stratification Marx distinguishes social classes on the basis of two criteria: Following this criterion of class based on property relations, Marx identified the social stratification of the capitalist mode of production with the following social groups: They subdivide as bourgeoisie and the petite bourgeoisie.
Petite bourgeoisie are those who work and can afford to buy little labour power i. Marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petite bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.India (IAST: Bhārat), also known as the Republic of India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South srmvision.com is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world.
Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares. The economy of India is the eleventh largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).
In the s, following economic reform from the socialist-inspired economy of post-independence India, the country began to experience rapid economic growth, as markets opened for international competition and investment. 1. WHITLEY AWARDS FOR WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: Two Indians Dr.
Ananda Kumar and Dr. Pramod Patil have won the prestigious whitely awards for their contribution to wildlife conservation. The awards were presented in a ceremony held in London. A total of 7 Conservationists were awarded the Whitley Awards for their efforts to protect wildlife in Developing countries.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique. The question wants us to write in detail about the different stages of leadership (in terms of levels of leadership) in public service.
Structure of the answer Introduction – write a few introductory lines about the meaning of leadership. Particular Economic Zone (SEZ 's) Scheme in India was conceived by the Commerce and Industries Minister Murasoli Maran during a visit to particular Economic Zones in China in The strategy was announced at the clip of one-year reappraisal of EXIM Policy effectual from