One symptom indicating muscular disease is weakness, usually symmetrical that is, affecting both sides of the body and mainly affecting the proximal or girdle muscles. This type of weakness may be noticed when climbing stairs, arising from a deep chair, brushing the hair, or… Indications of muscle disease Muscular atrophy and weakness are among the most common indications of muscular disease see below Muscle weakness. Though the degree of weakness is not necessarily proportional to the amount of wasting, it usually is so if there is specific involvement of nerve or muscle.
Catalytic Mechanism The enzyme does not require metal ions for its activity; one of the amino acids in the active site acts as a general base being able to abstract a hydride ion from the hydroxyl group bound to C1 of glucose 6-phosphate.
This causes glucose 6-phosphate, a cyclic hemiacetal with carbon 1 in the aldehyde oxidation state, to be oxidized to a cyclic ester, namely, a lactone. Because such histidine is conserved in many of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenases sequenced, it is likely that this catalytic mechanism can be generalized to all glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenases.
In humans, the enzyme exists in two forms: In fact, the binding of the oxidized coenzyme to a specific site close to the dimer interface, but distant from the active site, is required to maintain its dimeric conformation. Under these conditions the oxidative phase is virtually inactive.
Therefore it is possible to state that the fate of glucose 6-phosphate, an intermediate common to both glycolysis and the phosphogluconate pathway, also depends on the current needs for NADPH. A second mechanism for the regulation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity calls into question the accumulation of acyl-CoAs, intermediates in fatty acid synthesis.
These molecules, by binding to the dimeric form of the enzyme, lead to dissociation into the constitutive monomers, and then to the loss of the catalytic activity.
Insulin up-regulates the expression of the genes for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Therefore, in the well-fed state, the hormone increases carbon flow through the pentose phosphate pathway and then the production of NADPH.
Insulin also promotes the synthesis of fatty acids. However, in the cell this ring-opening reaction, an hydrolysis, is accelerated by the catalytic action of 6-phosphogluconolactonase EC 3. The reaction is catalyzed by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase EC 1.
It consists of an acid-base catalysis proceeding through a three step mechanism in which two strictly conserved residues, a lysine Lysand a glutamate Gluare involved; in humans, Lys and the Glu This leads to the formation of the 3-keto intermediate and a molecule of NADPH that leaves the active site.
In the second step, the decarboxylation step, 3-ketophosphogluconate, that is very susceptible to decarboxylation, is converted to the cis-1,2-enediol of ribulose 5-phosphate, a high energy intermediate. The result is the formation of ribulose 5-phosphate.
An enediol is an organic compound containing two carbon atoms linked by a double bond and an hydroxyl group -OH bound to both carbon atoms. The enediol can have cis or trans configuration.
Therefore, the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway ends with the production of ribulose 5-phosphate, namely, the substrate for the reactions of the non-oxidative phase.
The overall equation of the oxidative phase is: This phase begins with two reactions: Enzymatic isomerizations and epimerizations play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism.Primeval Labs EAA Max, in the flavors Orange Sherbert, Cherry Lemonade, and Strawberry Mango.
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Carbohydrates. on postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis. Key Words: cycling, dietary carbohydrate, recovery, serum glucose, insulin Prolonged endurance exercise can significantly reduce the glycogen level of contracting muscles (1,6, 11).
In order to replenish these glycogen stores, an adequate amount of carbohydrate must be ingested after exercise. I've answered over questions in the comments on the site so far.
Here you'll find detailed answers to your questions, or links to articles that do. The pentose phosphate pathway: contents in brief. What is the pentose phosphate pathway?
The elucidation of the pentose phosphate pathway; Functions of NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate. FDNT Midterm (Ch. ) study guide by letusliv includes questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. he two factors needed to optimize muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise are: a.
carbohydrate and excessive caloric intake d.
to spare muscle glycogen from being used during exercise.