Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are loosely defined terms, generally applied by common consent to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the midth century. The origin of the term The term Baroque probably ultimately derived from the Italian word barocco, which philosophers used during the Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic. Subsequently the word came to denote any contorted idea or involuted process of thought. In art criticism the word Baroque came to be used to describe anything irregular, bizarre, or otherwise departing from established rules and proportions.
One of the Baroque's most inspiring religious paintings ever created. What is Baroque Art? In fine art, the term Baroque derived from the Portuguese 'barocco' meaning, 'irregular pearl or stone' describes a fairly complex idiom, originating in Rome, which flowered during the period c. After the idealism of the Renaissance c.
Thus it is almost synonymous with Catholic Counter-Reformation Art of the period. Many Catholic Emperors and monarchs across Europe had an important stake in the Catholic Church's success, hence a large number of architectural designs, paintings and sculptures were commissioned by the Royal Courts of Spain, France, and elsewhere - in parallel to the overall campaign of Catholic Christian artpursued by the Vatican - in order to glorify their own divine grandeur, and in the process strengthen their political position.
By comparison, Baroque art in Protestant areas like Holland had far less religious content, and instead was designed essentially to appeal to the growing aspirations of the merchant and middle classes.
Baroque painting illustrated key elements of Catholic dogma, either directly in Biblical works or indirectly in mythological or allegorical compositions. Along with this monumental, high-minded approach, painters typically portrayed a strong sense of Baroque style definition, using swirling spirals and upward diagonals, and strong sumptuous colour schemes, in order to dazzle and surprise.
New techniques of tenebrism and chiaroscuro were developed to enhance atmosphere. Brushwork is creamy and broad, often resulting in thick impasto. However, the theatricality and melodrama of Baroque painting was not well received by later critics, like the influential John Ruskinwho considered it insincere.
Baroque sculpturetypically larger-than-life size, is marked by a similar sense of dynamic movement, along with an active use of space. Baroque architecture was designed to create spectacle and illusion. It was an emotional style, which, wherever possible, exploited the theatrical potential of the urban landscape - as illustrated by St Peter's Square in Rome, leading up to St Peter's Basilica.
Its designer, Berninione of the greatest Baroque architectsringed the square with colonnades, to convey the impression to visitors that they are being embraced by the arms of the Catholic Church. As is evident, although most of the architecture, painting and sculpture produced during the 17th century is known as Baroque, it is by no means a monolithic style.
There are at least three different strands of Baroque, as follows: This type of Baroque art is exemplified by the bold visionary sculpture and architecture of Berniniby the trompe l'oeil illusionistic ceiling frescoes of Pietro da Cortona - see his masterpiece Allegory of Divine Providence - and by the grandiose paintings of the Flemish master Rubens The boldness and physical presence of Caravaggio's figures, the life-like approach to religious painting adopted by Velazquez, a new form of movement and exuberance pioneered by Annibale Carracci, and a realistic form of rustic Biblical genre painting, complete with animals, evolved by Castiglione - all these elements were part of the new and dynamic style known as Baroque.
Classicism and Naturalism in Italian 17th Century Painting. This new Dutch Realist School of genre painting also led to enhanced realism in portrait art and landscape painting, flower pictures, animal compositions and, in particular, to new forms of still life paintingincluding the Protestant-inspired genre known as vanitas painting flourished Different towns and areas had their own 'schools' or styles, such as Utrecht, Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Haarlem and Dordrecht.
In addition, to complicate matters further, Rome - the very centre of the movement - was also home to a "classical" style, as exemplified in the paintings of the history painter Nicolas Poussin and the Arcadian landscape artist Claude Lorrain History of Baroque Art Following the pronouncements made by the Council of Trent on how art might serve religion, together with the upsurge in confidence in the Roman Catholic Church, it became clear that a new style of Biblical art was necessary in order to support the Catholic Counter Reformation and fully convey the miracles and sufferings of the Saints to the congregation of Europe.
This style had to be more forceful, more emotional and imbued with a greater realism. Strongly influenced by the views of the Jesuits the Baroque is sometimes referred to as 'the Jesuit Style'architecture, painting and sculpture were to work together to create a unified effect.
The initial impetus came from the arrival in Rome during the s of Annibale Carracci and Carravaggio Their presence sparked a new interest in realism as well as antique forms, both of which were taken up and developed in sculpture by Alessandro Algardi in sculpture and Bernini in sculpture and architecture.
Peter Paul Rubens, who remained in Rome untilwas the only great Catholic painter in the Baroque idiom, although Rembrandt and other Dutch artists were influenced by both Caravaggism and Bernini. France had its own more secular relationship with the Baroque, which was closest in architecture, notably the Palace of Versailles.
The key figure in French Baroque art of the 17th century was Charles Le Brun who exerted an influence far beyond his own metier.
See, for instance, the Gobelins tapestry factory, of which he was director. Spain and Portugal embraced it more enthusiastically, as did the Catholic areas of Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Spanish Netherlands. The culmination of the movement was the High Baroque c.
Ignazio, Romeby the illusionist ceiling painter Andrea Pozzo Surely one of the best Baroque paintings of the 17th century.Anything with a complicated design can be baroque but it also refers to a style of art, music, and architecture from 17th Century Italy (and is then sometimes capitalized).
Although it has roots in the Portuguese word barroco meaning "imperfect pearl" not everything baroque is imperfect. Baroque architecture and art is an elaborate style of architecture and art that was popular in Europe in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
The baroque church is worth a quick look. American English: . 1. also Baroque Of, relating to, or characteristic of a style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early 17th to midth century, emphasizing dramatic, often strained effect and typified by bold, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts.
Baroque - the historic period from about until when the baroque style of art, architecture, and music flourished in Europe. Baroque era, Baroque period. 2. baroque - elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century.
Baroque architecture and art is an elaborate style of architecture and art that was popular in Europe in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The baroque church is worth a quick look. American English: . 1. also Baroque Of, relating to, or characteristic of a style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early 17th to midth century, emphasizing dramatic, often strained effect and typified by bold, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Baroque definition, of or relating to a style of architecture and art originating in Italy in the early 17th century and variously prevalent in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, characterized by free and sculptural use of the classical orders and ornament, by forms in elevation and plan suggesting movement, and by dramatic effect in which .
Baroque art and architecture: Baroque art and architecture, the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century. The earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, .
Baroque Music: Definition, History, Characteristics & Composers; Baroque music is a heavily ornamented style of music that came out of the Renaissance.