Peru, a major gold producer and exporter, is currently experiencing a surge in illegal gold mining.
Amazon River rain forest in Peru Tropical rainforests can be characterized in two words: Tropical rainforests exhibit high levels of biodiversity. Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems globally due to large-scale fragmentation as a result of human activity.
Habitat fragmentation caused by geological processes such as volcanism and climate change occurred in the past, and have been identified as important drivers of speciation. Tropical rain forests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance throughout the 20th century, and the area covered by rainforests around the world is rapidly shrinking.
Most tropical rainforests today are on fragments of the Mesozoic era supercontinent of Gondwana.
Other types of tropical forest Several biomes may appear similar-to, or merge via ecotones with, tropical rainforest: Moist seasonal tropical forest Daintree "rainforest" in Queensland is actually a seasonal tropical forest. Moist seasonal tropical forests receive high overall rainfall with a warm summer wet season and a cooler winter dry season.
Some trees in these forests drop some or all of their leaves during the winter dry season, thus they are sometimes called "tropical mixed forest". They are found in parts of South America, in Central America and around the Caribbeanin coastal West Africaparts of the Indian subcontinentand across much of Indochina.
Montane rainforests These are found in cooler-climate mountainous areas, becoming known as cloud forests at higher elevations. Forest structure Rainforests are divided into different strata, or layers, with vegetation organized into a vertical pattern from the top of the soil to the canopy.
Only the emergent layer is unique to tropical rainforests, while the others are also found in temperate rainforests. Only plants adapted to low light can grow in this region. Away from riverbanks, swamps and clearings, where dense undergrowth is found, the forest floor is relatively clear of vegetation because of the low sunlight penetration.
This more open quality permits the easy movement of larger animals such as: The forest floor also contains decaying plant and animal matter, which disappears quickly, because the warm, humid conditions promote rapid decay.
Many forms of fungi growing here help decay the animal and plant waste. Understory layer Main article: Understory The understory layer lies between the canopy and the forest floor.
The understory is home to a number of birds, small mammals, insects, reptiles, and predators. Examples include leopard Panthera parduspoison dart frogs Dendrobates sp. As an adaptation to these low light levels, understory plants have often evolved much larger leaves.
Many seedlings that will grow to the canopy level are in the understory. Canopy ecology The canopy is the primary layer of the forest forming a roof over the two remaining layers. It contains the majority of the largest trees, typically 30—45 m in height. Tall, broad-leaved evergreen trees are the dominant plants.
The densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, as it often supports a rich flora of epiphytesincluding orchids, bromeliads, mosses and lichens. These epiphytic plants attach to trunks and branches and obtain water and minerals from rain and debris that collects on the supporting plants.
The fauna is similar to that found in the emergent layer, but more diverse. It is suggested that the total arthropod species richness of the tropical canopy might be as high as 20 million.
Balizia elegansDipteryx panamensisHieronyma alchorneoidesHymenolobium mesoamericanumLecythis ampla and Terminalia oblonga.
Several unique faunal species inhabit this layer such as the crowned eagle Stephanoaetus coronatusthe king colobus Colobus polykomosand the large flying fox Pteropus vampyrus.
Rainforests are dynamic and many changes affect the structure of the forest.An analysis of the issue of gold mining in the amazon tropical rainforest region Energy Event An analysis of the causes of the peloponnessian war in ancient greece.
Changing Nature. The Amazon rainforest in South America has large quantities of copper, tin, nickel, bauxite, manganese, iron ore and gold, making it attractive to mining companies all around the world.
An area of the Amazon rainforest in srmvision.com tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on Earth.
Amazon gold rush destroying huge swaths of rainforest by John C. Cannon on 14 January The rainforests of South America face many threats. the gold mining extent and rates are far higher than pre- viously reported, with critically important implications for the ecology and environmental policy of this unique tropical.
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